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Wassoulou music is performed mostly by women. Some recurring themes in the lyrics are childbearing, fertility, and polygamy. Instrumentation includes soku (a traditional fiddle sometimes replaced with modern imported instruments), djembe drum, kamalen n'goni (a six-stringed harp), karinyan (metal tube percussion) and bolon (a four-stringed harp). The vocals are often passionate and emphatic, and delivered in a call-and-response pattern.
- Jon Lusk (5 June 2009). "Coumba Sidibe: Malian singer who helped to popularise West African Wassoulou music". The Independent. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Duran, Lucy (2003). "Women, Music, and the 'Mystique' of Hunters in Mali". In Ingrid Monson (ed.). The African Diaspora: A Musical Perspective. Taylor & Francis. pp. 154–186. ISBN 9780415967693.
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